Learning to do live online storytelling

This weeks post is by teacher, teacher trainer, ELT author and storyteller, David Heathfield. David is the latest person to join our pool of volunteers around the world doing a weekly session for the Hands Up Project.

I’m learning to do live online storytelling

I’ve been writing about and advocating live storytelling face to face in the classroom for years. When I agreed to do my first volunteer storytelling session online with a group of teenage girls in Gaza I needed to convince myself that I could make live online storytelling work. As I prepared, I watched video clips from the Hands Up Project and noticed how engaged and enthused the students are, so the evidence was clear. But, apart from a couple of storytelling webinars I’d done for teachers, this would be my first experience of live online storytelling.

Face to face storytelling

Storytelling is by its very nature an interpersonal, co-creative activity. An unscripted story is never told the same way twice. When doing face to face storytelling I can pick up on the subtle signals that students give off and make spontaneous alterations to my storytelling in response. I suddenly notice a look of open-mouthed wonder on one student’s face, so I might nod at that student and ask ‘Haven’t you ever made a wish, Lama?’ Or I see two students at the back of the room exchanging a knowing, conspiratorial look, so I gesture towards them and say ‘You two know what’s going to happen next, don’t you?’ In response to a student’s yawn, I might stretch and yawn myself and say, with a wink and an empathetic smile at the student, ‘Is this story ever going to end?’ When the listeners are language learners, their facial expressions will also tell me whether they are following the meaning of the story. If they aren’t, I might repeat what I just said or paraphrase it or use questions to check they have understood eg ‘So how did the rich man feel?’

Challenges of live online storytelling

But how can I do these things in front of a webcam when the image I’m looking at on the screen shows only ten of the fifty students in the class and is too unclear for me to read such subtle signals? The students are looking at my head and shoulders on a screen on another wall of the classroom so they are not even facing me. One solution is to get the teacher who is in the classroom with the students to help with the telling of the story, but as a storyteller I really want to be able to communicate with the students directly myself.

Believe!

So my answer is ‘Believe!’ As long as I’m well prepared and have rehearsed the story with these students in mind, I can just tell the story clearly and with conviction to my webcam (so to students it seems I’m giving them eye contact on their screen). I just need to believe that they are as engaged as I am in this shared storytelling. I start by teaching them a call and response: I call ‘Story, story!’ and they respond ‘Tell us a story!’ We practise doing this call and response three times with increasing energy and then I begin telling the story. I pause a couple of minutes into the story and call again ‘Story, story!’ If they respond ‘Tell us a story!’ I know that they are still with me. I include in the story a reference to something we did or talked about together before the story began. For example, if the students have told me that it’s raining heavily, I might say ‘The sun was shining brightly as the rich man walked through the forest, not like the weather in Gaza today’. Or if one of the students has sung me a song, I say ‘The bird sang so beautifully for the rich man – just like Tasnim sang for us.’

The key is to be present in the room with the students and to use my imagination and all my teaching experience. This is not a video recording for an audience to be watched at another time in another place. This is live ‘you and me together’ storytelling. Even if there’s a time lag, I just need to go on with the story, believing that the students are with me. And if I find afterwards in their responses to the story that the story they have understood is different in some details from the one I told, that is evidence that they are using their imaginations, that they are creatively engaged in spontaneous storytelling across cyberspace.

So far so good

I’m still new to online storytelling – I’ve done just four online storytelling sessions with teenage girls learning English in Gaza. Thanks to their enthusiasm, I’m getting more confident as an online storyteller. Of course the teacher in the classroom with the students has played an absolutely vital role, particularly in clarifying the tasks I ask the students to do. But I have managed to tell stories directly with the students and it’s a real joy.

The video shows an extract from the second of my Gaza storytelling sessions – notice the students’ extraordinarily intuitive and creative responses.

And here are more of the wishes these students made:

  • I wish to visit Al Aqsa Mosque and pray in it.
  • I wish to be a famous scientist to make my family proud of me.
  • I wish to travel to Russia because it is very beautiful.
  • I wish to lift the siege of Gaza
  • I wish to be the king of this big world to show them who the Palestinians are and that they are great and not terrorists. 
  • I wish to travel to Jordan because my mom’s family is there and I wish to become to the first student in my class.
  • I wish to memorize the Holy Quran and I wish to be a doctor.
  • I wish all people think about others and not just about themeslves.
  • I wish a free and happy life for every country under siege.
  • I wish to travel to Britain one day.
  • I wish to have peace in our world because we miss that especially in our Palestinian society and all people know that siege has the great force.
  • I wish to travel to Paris one day.
  • I wish to learn more languages like Spanish and French.
  • I wish to visit Jerusalem
  • I wish to be a businesswoman
  • I wish to live a happy life.
  • I wish to be a teacher in the future.

 

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PPP as a framework for teacher training

In 1990, when I first took some training to be a teacher of English as a foreign language, we were strongly encouraged to use the PPP (Presentation, Practice, Production) framework for planning lessons.  Here’s a reminder of how it works…

Presentation: The teacher presents an area of language to the learners. The language area is contextualised through a written or spoken text, and typically involves clarification of meaning, form and pronunciation.

Practice: The learners practise the area of language. This is usually tightly controlled in two ways; firstly in that it is only the target area of language that is being practised, and secondly in that the teacher is available to provide assistance and feedback throughout.

Production: The learners produce the language in context. Here a situation is set up where the learners can experiment with using the language naturally. Along with the target area, they can also produce other areas of language which fit the context. The teacher monitors and may make a note of language issues which arise, but typically does not intervene.

 

Like many ideas which have become widely used, PPP has come in for a lot of criticism from different corners of the ELT community. Some of this criticism, has unfairly linked PPP to behaviourism. I don’t have space here to go into much discussion about this, but would just like to mention how much I learnt from reading Jason Anderson’s (2016) article, in which he strongly defends PPP, especially for more challenging contexts around the world where classes are large and where opportunities to use English are limited (like those places in which The Hands Up Project works). Jason traces PPP back to its origins in Teaching Oral English by Don Byrne (1976) and its interesting that, even then, Byrne was suggesting that the stages didn’t necessarily need to be followed in that order, and that starting with production could inform what is later presented and practised.  This emphasis on natural, free use of language at the production stage negates any links with behaviourism.

I’ve been thinking a lot recently about frameworks for teacher training, and wondering whether PPP might be an appropriate paradigm for planning training sessions. If we replace ‘language area’ with the content of the teacher training programme, then perhaps PPP could provide the necessary stages in order for teachers to take on board new ideas. Two weeks ago I had the chance to try this idea out in practice when I was invited by Relief International to do some face to face training on the Stories Alive material with Syrian teachers of English in the Azraq and Zaatari refugee camps in Jordan. I only had about four hours training with each group of teachers so chose to just focus on activities that could be done before telling the story with the big versions of the pictures, and on ways of telling the story.

Presentation:  I demonstrated the material with the teachers in role as learners using one of the stories – The jackal and the crow. I also showed videos of real learners in Zaatari doing the same activities in our online classes.

Practice: The teachers worked in small groups. They picked a different story from the Stories Alive collection to work with and planned a lesson using some of the activities I had demonstrated. They tried out the activities as micro-teaching on each other. We all gave the teachers feedback on how we thought the activities would work with a real class.

Production: We were given a real class of learners for the teachers to teach using the material and ideas they had practised during the previous stage. The teachers team taught the class.

Of course, it won’t always be possible, in every teacher training context, to have a production stage where teachers try out ideas with real students. But if a class is available, it does address a problem we encounter regularly as teacher trainers, where teachers can be sceptical about whether things we demonstrate would work in a real classroom.

I also made a video showing short excerpts of the activities they used with the students which I think other teachers working in similar contexts could learn from.  Huge respect to all the teachers in the video. You did a great job!

 

So what do you think? Is PPP a useful way of organising English classes in the context in which you work? And is PPP a viable framework for training teachers?

References

Anderson, J (2016) ‘Why practice makes perfect sense: The past, present and potential future of the PPP paradigm in language teacher education.’ ELT Education and Development 19 http://www.elted.net/uploads/7/3/1/6/7316005/3_vol.19_anderson.pdf

Byrne, D (1976) Teaching Oral English; Longman

A non-communicative Christmas activity

I’ve always been very keen on information gap activities; the kind of thing where students work in pairs and where one student has one set of information and the other student has a different set and they have to communicate to somehow pool what they know. The classic example of this is ‘Spot the differences’. It usually works something like this..

  1. Student A has one picture. Student B has a slightly different picture. They don’t show their pictures to each other.
  2. They talk to each other to find differences between their pictures, using questions like ‘In your picture is there a man?’ ‘Does he have a beard?’ etc.

It’s a great way to encourage lots of meaningful communication and to practice certain grammatical forms and particular areas of vocabulary. On the other hand, when I’ve used it with low level learners I’ve often encountered problems. Sometimes learners end up showing their pictures to each other because they simply don’t have enough shared language to do the task. If either of them doesn’t know the word for beard for example, they can end up showing the pictures to each other in order to clarify meanings. The information gap is lost of course but the language gap is still there, and I think that in certain situations this can actually lead to more learning.

Here’s an example from the Hands Up project’s last session before Xmas which took place on Wednesday. Alex in Russia led the session for a group in Gaza and she asked me to take part too from the UK. She organised a really nice competition between me and the class (in which I was resoundingly thrashed!) with questions about how Christmas is celebrated in Russia. Then she showed this picture of Father Frost and Father Xmas and asked us to take it in turns to talk about differences and similarities. There’s no information gap, but there are plenty of opportunities to notice language for the learners.

Happy Christmas to readers of this blog everywhere and we look forward to seeing you in the New Year.

The Bun

We have another guest post this week – this time from not just one teacher but two! Alexandra Guzik, teaches English at the Follow me to English school in Krasnodar, Russia and Sahar Salha teaches at the Elementary co-ed “A” UNRWA school in Beit Hanoun, Gaza. This post is about a really nice cross cultural learning experience that they set up through the Hands Up Project. Alex’s class reworked a traditional Russian folk tale into English and then sent it to Sahar’s class for them to rehearse it and perform it. At the bottom of this post you can see a video of this perfomance, but first read their reflections on the experience.

Alex – Making the Bun

Background

I teach in a private school where children get extra English classes. They come twice a week for a one-hour-and-a half lesson. Most of the children arrive 5-15 minutes before their lesson starts and leave immediately after the lesson is over. Most of them rush to other classes or school depending on the shift at school. At our school we give learners homework to do as two lessons a week is not enough for work on the language to progress in learning it. Therefore there is little opportunity for us to do work beyond our course.

Choosing the story

There are quite a few Russian folktales and most of them deserve to be shared with children from other countries. So before having our hands full with translation, we had to choose one folktale to begin with. The Bun (Kolobok – a type of a round bread or a round loaf) has a repetitive pattern, which means less work for translators and a good number of characters – eight. One more advantage of repetitive nature of the story is that it is easier to learn the script.

Approach to translation

I didn’t want to spend a lot of lesson time on working on the translation. So I asked my students to have a go at translating the fairytale at home as an addition to their homework. Unfortunately, it was in June and only four children attended the following lesson.  But we had a good discussion comparing each other’s translations, arguing when choosing more suitable words. E.g. negotiating on words ‘pantry’ and ‘scrape up’ caused a lively discussion because learners had three different versions for them. We used online translator, monolingual dictionaries and Google Image to reach a consensus. At last we read through the final version which everyone was happy with.

Teacher’s work

What I had to do after the lesson was to type the story in a form of a play and edit the chant for it to keep a steady rhythm.

Interesting observations:

1 Whereas in English words Grandpa and Grandma mean relatives, in Russian any elderly person might be called Grandma and Grandpa. That is why we had to add this line ‘There was once a poor old man, Grandpa, and his wife, Grandma’, instead of just ‘There was once a Grandpa and Grandma. They were poor.’

2 Some old-fashioned Russian words are used in the story, which exact meaning some learners did not know. So at first they had to find out the meaning of these words before translating into English.

3 Some learners tried to find ready-made translations on the Internet, but most of them turned out to be of too high level for borrowing them as they were. Thus learners’ effort was still necessary.

 

Sahar – Performing the Bun

Being in touch with Alex to do online sessions means a lot to me and my students at school. As a result of this interaction , Alex sent me a Russian story and I trained my students to perform it. I’m very happy that they liked the story.

Here are a few of the things they said about the experience .

Malak “the bun”: I’m very happy that we act this story although it’s easier than stories we performed for Mr Nick before, but I’m happier because it is from Alex ;this means we have new audience for our performance. Also I feel as I’m flying while rolling.

Ahed “the narrator”:This story is Russian ,this means that we can perform other stories in the future like French or Spanish stories.

Zeinab “the animal”: I like this story because it is like a song with its repeated lines, my brothers at home started to sing it and they don’t know what it means but they hear me. I won’t forget it forever.

Task feedback

A few years ago I attended a really interesting talk by Jane Willis at an IATEFL conference somewhere. The talk was about using task based learning in challenging circumstances, and there was a point when one of the teachers in the audience was telling everyone about her particular challenge of trying to get learners to use English (rather than mother tongue) to do group work tasks in the large classes of low level learners that she taught. I can really sympathise with this problem; teacher monitoring is so important in my opinion, in order to provide learners with they support they need in order to engage effectively with  tasks, but in a large class it’s impossible to be able to get round to everyone so it’s almost inevitable that some groups will drift off task, or revert to L1.  Jane offered many solutions to this issue. The one that really stuck out for me was her suggestion that in such cases in might be better to give priority to the task feedback stage of the cycle. If learners know that weight is going to be given to the point where they feed back to the rest of the class about what they have been discussing they are likely to make sure they are ready for this by preparing well during the group work stage.

As a teacher, it’s natural for me to incorporate lots of groupwork, so one of the things that I find rather frustrating about working through video conferencing tools is that monitoring of group work by me is impossible.  So I also have to emphasise the task feedback stage, even when I’m working with smaller groups. However, I’m actually starting to feel that there may be some benefits to spending more time on task feedback than on the task itself. For a start the learner or learners at the front have lots of opportunities for what they are saying to be scaffolded by the teacher and, because the rest of the class are listening carefully (perhaps more so because the learners face is also projected onto the big screen) they may also be learning from this interaction, even though they are not directly involved in it. I also wonder whether by insisting on English only in group stages we may actually be limiting learning rather than promoting it. Surely something useful is happening if learners are thinking things in L1 and then working out how to say these things in English in preparation for the task feedback stage which follows.

So here’s a practical example of this with a girls group in Nablus, Palestine. The basic procedure of the lesson is as follows :-

  1. I show the class two pictures of the same Palestinian dishes -one made by a teacher in Gaza, Wesam and the other made be me. I elicit one or two examples of differences between the two pictures.
  2. The students work in small groups. Their task is to discuss all the differences they can find between the two pictures.
  3.  The class is split into two larger groups. One learner from each group comes up to the front. They take it in turns to talk about differences. They can ask their groups to help them but I only accept answers from the two girls at the front. The team that keeps going for the longest by mentioning new differences is the winner.

So what do you think? Where is the learning happening? Is it happening in the stage when learners talk to each other in groups, or is it happening during the task feedback stage? Or perhaps it’s happening at both stages, or perhaps it’s happening in neither?!

 

The power of drama

This week we have a guest post from Henritte Sudah, who teaches English at Zababdeh girls secondary school, Jenin, Palestine.

When I went on the training course with Nick in Ramallah about using stories in teaching English I was unsure about whether I would be able to apply it in my classes. Some of the girls in my class have learning difficulties and they don’t know how to read or write any English at all. But as soon as I had told the first story to the students they were very excited about singing the song and acting it out. I could hear the children singing the song to themselves in the playground long after the class had finished. For the play, one student explained to everyone else what their roles should be and they worked the whole thing out on their own. The children who took part in these performances now come to meet me very morning at the school gate. So now I am proud that I am part of this project, but most of all I’m proud of my students.

 

 

Staging a lesson around a story

Over the past two months, along with doing lots of online sessions myself, I’ve been running several series of online training sessions with dedicated teachers in many different places around the world, who have given up their time to volunteer with the Hands Up Project. A few weeks ago, a teacher on one of the courses asked me if she could see some videos of whole sessions, so as to get more ideas as to how to stage an online lesson around a story.

It’s true that all of the videos on our youtube channel for teachers have so far just focused on individual activities led by the teacher, or performances of plays and chants by children. I’m about to rectify that however, with this video of a complete 45 minute session led by Alexandra Guzik in Krasnodar, Russia, with Sahar Salha coordinating things from the other side, with her class of girls at the Elementary co-ed “A” UNRWA school in Beit Hanoun, Gaza.

Alex first got in touch with me back in May to see if we could arrange a link up between her class of kids in a private language school in Russia and a class in Gaza. You can read about what happened here.

Now Alex is a volunteering once a week, working with a group in the Sahar’s school. There are lots of really great things happening in this session in my opinion (you can watch it in full below) Here are a few of the key things for me.

  1. It’s a very nice example of teacher as audience. Alex is an audience for the homework which she’d asked them to do at the end the of the previous session (find out some interesting facts about animals). She’s also an audience for their performances of their stories and chants. Like all good audiences, she’s actively listening to what the children are saying and, by this empowering them immensely – not least for Rania, the student who was so visibly pleased to be able to communicate with Alex in Russian.
  2. It’s a very well staged lesson. Alex builds on what they did for homework, thereby emphasising the fact that learning English isn’t just something that happens in class time. She also provides a nice balance between teacher input and student output in the whole session, and she includes some really motivating and learning rich pre-story and post-story activities.
  3. There’s a strong focus on communication. I’m coming to the conclusion that video conferencing isn’t that great for accuracy work, like drilling or any form of pronunciation practice, especially when the internet connection isn’t very strong. It is very good however for negotiation of meaning. In fact the difficulties with the connection seem to push everyone to rephrase things and to try to speak more clearly and loudly so that the message gets through.  This can only be a good thing, and there are lots of examples of it in this extract.
  4. It’s very effective team teaching. Alex has planned the session but she allows space in what she’s doing for Sahar, the teacher at the other end, to control much of the session too. And whilst Alex is driving the narrative of the class, Sahar is managing everything on the ground in Gaza, knowing which students to bring in for certain activities, and scaffolding and supporting what they are saying.  The interaction between them when they are deciding what to do is also excellent exposure to comprehensible input for the children. How often do children in contexts like this get the chance to hear two super advanced speakers of English, modelling dialogue in English about things which are directly related to the children?